Chytré nanonástroje


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 310
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    ChemFET gas nanosensor arrays with alignment windows for assembly of single nanowires
    (Springer, 2023-04-13) Chmela, Ondřej; Gablech, Imrich; Sadílek, Jakub; Brodský, Jan; Vallejos Vargas, Stella
    This work focuses on the fabrication and characterization of ChemFET (Chemical Field-Effect Transistor) gas nanosensor arrays based on single nanowire (SNW). The fabrication processes include micro and nanofabrication techniques enabled by a combination of ultraviolet (UV) and e-beam lithography to build the ChemFET structure. Results show the integration and connection of SNWs across the multiple pairs of nanoelectrodes in the ChemFET by dielectrophoresis process (DEP) thanks to the incorporation of alignment windows (200-300 nm) adapted to the diameter of the NWs. Measurements of the SNW ChemFET array's output and transfer characteristics prove the influence of gate bias on the drain current regulation. Tests upon hydrogen (H-2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as analyte models of reducing and oxidizing gases show the ChemFET sensing functionality. Moreover, results demonstrate better response characteristics to H-2 when the ChemFET operates in the subthreshold regime. The design concepts and methods proposed for fabricating the SNW-based ChemFET arrays are versatile, reproducible, and most likely adaptable to other systems where SNW arrays are required.
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    New trends in methyl salicylate sensing and their implications in agriculture
    (Elsevier, 2023-03-01) Ashrafi, Amirmansoor; Bytešníková, Zuzana; Cané, Carles; Lukas, Richtera; Vallejos Vargas, Stella
    Methyl salicylate (MeSal) is an organic compound present in plants during stress events and is therefore a key marker for early plant disease detection. It has usually been detected by conventional methods that require bulky and costly equipment, such as gas chromatography or mass spectrometry. Currently, however, chemical sensors provide an alternative for MeSal monitoring, showing good performance for its determination in the vapour or liquid phase. The most promising concepts used in MeSal determination include sensors based on electrochemical and conductometric principles, although other technologies based on mass-sensitive, microwave, or spectrophotometric principles also show promise. The receptor elements or sensitive materials are shown to be part of the key elements in these sensing technologies. A literature survey identified a significant contribution of bioreceptors, including enzymes, odourant-binding proteins or peptides, as well as receptors based on polymers or inorganic materials in MeSal determination. This work reviews these concepts and materials and discusses their future prospects and limitations for application in plant health monitoring.
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    Direct measurement of oxygen reduction reactions at neurostimulation electrodes
    (IOP Publishing Ltd, 2022-06-01) Ehlich, Jiří; Migliaccio, Ludovico; Sahalianov, Ihor; Nikić, Marta; Brodský, Jan; Gablech, Imrich; Vu, Xuan Thang; Ingebrandt, Sven; Glowacki, Eric Daniel
    Objective. Electric stimulation delivered by implantable electrodes is a key component of neural engineering. While factors affecting long-term stability, safety, and biocompatibility are a topic of continuous investigation, a widely-accepted principle is that charge injection should be reversible, with no net electrochemical products forming. We want to evaluate oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) occurring at different electrode materials when using established materials and stimulation protocols. Approach. As stimulation electrodes, we have tested platinum, gold, tungsten, nichrome, iridium oxide, titanium, titanium nitride, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate). We use cyclic voltammetry and voltage-step amperometry in oxygenated versus inert conditions to establish at which potentials ORR occurs, and the magnitudes of diffusion-limited ORR currents. We also benchmark the areal capacitance of each electrode material. We use amperometric probes (Clark-type electrodes) to quantify the O-2 and H2O2 concentrations in the vicinity of the electrode surface. O-2 and H2O2 concentrations are measured while applying DC current, or various biphasic charge-balanced pulses of amplitude in the range 10-30 mu C cm(-2)/phase. To corroborate experimental measurements, we employ finite element modelling to recreate 3D gradients of O-2 and H2O2. Main results. All electrode materials support ORR and can create hypoxic conditions near the electrode surface. We find that electrode materials differ significantly in their onset potentials for ORR, and in the extent to which they produce H2O2 as a by-product. A key result is that typical charge-balanced biphasic pulse protocols do lead to irreversible ORR. Some electrodes induce severely hypoxic conditions, others additionally produce an accumulation of hydrogen peroxide into the mM range. Significance. Our findings highlight faradaic ORR as a critical consideration for neural interface devices and show that the established biphasic/charge-balanced approach does not prevent irreversible changes in O-2 concentrations. Hypoxia and H2O2 can result in different (electro)physiological consequences.
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    Surface modification strategies and the functional mechanisms of gold nanozyme in biosensing and bioassay
    (Elsevier, 2023-06-01) Garehbaghi, Sanam; Ashrafi, Amirmansoor; Adam, Vojtěch; Richtera, Lukáš
    Gold nanozymes (GNZs) have been widely used in biosensing and bioassay due to their interesting catalytic activities that enable the substitution of natural enzyme. This review explains different catalytic activities of GNZs that can be achieved by applying different modifications to their surface. The role of Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in mimicking oxidoreductase, helicase, phosphatase were introduced. Moreover, the effect of surface properties and modifications on each catalytic activity was thoroughly discussed. The application of GNZs in biosensing and bioassay was classified in five categories based on the combination of the enzyme like activities and enhancing/ inhibition of the catalytic activities in presence of the target analyte/s that is realized by proper surface modification engineering. These categories include catalytic activity enhancer, reversible catalytic activity inhibitor, binding selectivity enhancer, agglomeration base, and multienzyme like activity, which are explained and exemplified in this review. It also gives examples of those modifications that enable the application of GNZs for in vivo biosensing and bioassays.
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    Magnetically Driven Self-Degrading Zinc-Containing Cystine Microrobots for Treatment of Prostate Cancer
    (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2023-04-01) Ussia, Martina; Urso, Mario; Kratochvílová, Monika; Navrátil, Jiří; Balvan, Jan; Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C.; Vyskočil, Jan; Masařík, Michal; Pumera, Martin
    Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed tumor disease in men, and its treatment is still a big challenge in standard oncology therapy. Magnetically actuated microrobots represent the most promising technology in modern nanomedicine, offering the advantage of wireless guidance, effective cell penetration, and non-invasive actuation. Here, new biodegradable magnetically actuated zinc/cystine-based microrobots for in situ treatment of prostate cancer cells are reported. The microrobots are fabricated via metal-ion-mediated self-assembly of the amino acid cystine encapsulating superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) during the synthesis, which allows their precise manipulation by a rotating magnetic field. Inside the cells, the typical enzymatic reducing environment favors the disassembly of the aminoacidic chemical structure due to the cleavage of cystine disulfide bonds and disruption of non-covalent interactions with the metal ions, as demonstrated by in vitro experiments with reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). In this way, the cystine microrobots served for site-specific delivery of Zn2+ ions responsible for tumor cell killing via a "Trojan horse effect". This work presents a new concept of cell internalization exploiting robotic systems' self-degradation, proposing a step forward in non-invasive cancer therapy.