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Recent Submissions

Shallow foundation design: a comparative study of partial safety factors and full probabilistic methods
(Springer Nature, 2024-06-13) Vořechovský, Miroslav; Miča, Lumír; Boštík, Jiří
In the past two decades, Europe has witnessed a significant transition in the design codes used for assessing foundation structures, with the widespread adoption of the Eurocodes (EC). This shift remains a pertinent topic within the engineering community, particularly concerning the transition from traditional design methodologies to those prescribed by the Eurocodes, as well as the potential for fully probabilistic design. While the Eurocodes’ methodology is described as probabilistic, it is crucial to recognize that the achievement of the target reliability level is predominantly facilitated through a system of partial safety factors. These factors are integrated into the calculation algorithm as fixed values, rendering the process essentially deterministic. To refine these calculations for more accurate reliability estimates—expressed in terms of failure probability—a genuinely probabilistic framework is required, termed as fully probabilistic computation. This paper aims to elucidate the fully probabilistic calculation approach for the broader professional community, using the geotechnical application of shallow foundations as an illustrative example. We present a comparative analysis of this advanced approach with the standard foundation design according to EC7 and ČSN 731001, the latter being a precursor in Europe for implementing the partial safety factor method. The discussion extends to a practical demonstration of full probabilistic design juxtaposed against the conventional partial safety factor method, using a shallow foundation case study. Furthermore, the paper delves into the impact of the tail behavior of uncertain or spatially varying soil parameters on the theoretical probability of failure, underscoring its significance in foundation design.
Control Set Reduction for PMSM Predictive Controller via Assisted Learning Algorithm
(IEEE, 2024-06-18) Kozubík, Michal; Václavek, Pavel
This paper introduces innovative methods for reducing the control set in finite control set model predictive control of the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor powered by a 3-level voltage source inverter. The primary objective of this reduction is to address a crucial factor in the computational burden of the control algorithm-the exponential growth in the number of potential switching state combinations forming the controller’s control set with an increasing prediction horizon length. The proposed methods aim to decrease the number of switching states necessary for evaluation, mitigating the aforementioned exponential growth. These methods leverage information about the controller’s behavior. The first method relies solely on the count of transitions between individual switching states. Additionally, the second method incorporates information about the states of the controlled motor to construct a decision tree, forming the new control set. The behavior of the controllers with reduced and complete control sets is compared in the simulation experiment, emphasizing the proper tracking of the requested angular speed and their overall computational complexity.
SPEED: an integrated, smartphone-operated, handheld digital PCR Device for point-of-care testing
(Springer Nature, 2024-05-20) Zhang, Haoqing; Liu, Xiaocheng; Wang, Xinlu; Yan, Zhiqiang; Xu, Ying; Gaňová, Martina; Řezníček, Tomáš; Korabečná, Marie; Neužil, Pavel
This study elaborates on the design, fabrication, and data analysis details of SPEED, a recently proposed smartphone-based digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) device. The dPCR chips incorporate partition diameters ranging from 50 mu m to 5 mu m, and these partitions are organized into six distinct blocks to facilitate image processing. Due to the superior thermal conductivity of Si and its potential for mass production, the dPCR chips were fabricated on a Si substrate. A temperature control system based on a high-power density Peltier element and a preheating/cooling PCR protocol user interface shortening the thermal cycle time. The optical design employs four 470 nm light-emitting diodes as light sources, with filters and mirrors effectively managing the light emitted during PCR. An algorithm is utilized for image processing and illumination nonuniformity correction including conversion to a monochromatic format, partition identification, skew correction, and the generation of an image correction mask. We validated the device using a range of deoxyribonucleic acid targets, demonstrating its potential applicability across multiple fields. Therefore, we provide guidance and verification of the design and testing of the recently proposed SPEED device.
Advances in Materials with Self-Healing Properties: A Brief Review
(MDPI, 2024-05-20) Dallaev, Rashid
The development of materials with self-healing capabilities has garnered considerable attention due to their potential to enhance the durability and longevity of various engineering and structural applications. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances in materials with self-healing properties, encompassing polymers, ceramics, metals, and composites. We outline future research directions and potential applications of self-healing materials (SHMs) in diverse fields. This review aims to provide insights into the current state-of-the-art in SHM research and guide future efforts towards the development of innovative and sustainable materials with enhanced self-repair capabilities. Each material type showcases unique self-repair mechanisms tailored to address specific challenges. Furthermore, this review investigates crack healing processes, shedding light on the latest developments in this critical aspect of self-healing materials. Through an extensive exploration of these topics, this review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current landscape and future directions in self-healing materials research.
Mathematical Physics Analysis of Nozzle Shaping at the Gas Outlet from the Aperture to the Differentially Pumped Chamber in Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM)
(MDPI, 2024-05-20) Maxa, Jiří; Neděla, Vilém; Šabacká, Pavla; Binar, Tomáš
A combination of experimental measurement preparations using pressure and temperature sensors in conjunction with the theory of one-dimensional isentropic flow and mathematical physics analyses is presented as a tool for analysis in this paper. Furthermore, the subsequent development of a nozzle for use in environmental electron microscopy between the specimen chamber and the differentially pumped chamber is described. Based on experimental measurements, an analysis of the impact of the nozzle shaping located behind the aperture on the character of the supersonic flow and the resulting dispersion of the electron beam passing through the differential pumped chamber is carried out on the determined pressure ratio using a combination of theory and mathematical physics analyses. The results show that nozzle shapes causing under-expanded gas outflow from the aperture to the nozzle have a worse impact on the dispersion of the primary electron beam. This is due to the flow velocity control. The controlled reduction in the static pressure curve on the primary electron beam path thus causes a significantly higher course of electron dispersion values than variants with shapes causing over-expanded gas outflow.