Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a straightforward bioimaging tool for plant biologists; the case study for assessment of photon-upconversion nanoparticles in Brassica oleracea L. plant
The main purpose of this work is to thoroughly describe the implementation protocol of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) method in the plant analysis. Numerous feasibility studies and recent progress in instrumentation and trends in chemical analysis make LIBS an established method in plant bioimaging. In this work, we present an easy and straightforward phytotoxicity case study with a focus on LIBS method. We intend to demonstrate in detail how to manipulate with plants after exposures and how to prepare them for analyses. Moreover, we aim to achieve 2D maps of spatial element distribution with a good resolution without any loss of sensitivity. The benefits of rapid, low-cost bioimaging are highlighted. In this study, cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) was treated with an aqueous dispersion of photon-upconversion nanoparticles (NaYF4 doped with Yb3+ and Tm3+ coated with carboxylated silica shell) in a hydroponic shortterm toxicity test. After a 72-hour plant exposure, several macroscopic toxicity end-points were monitored. The translocation of Y, Yb, and Tm across the whole plant was set by employing LIBS with a lateral resolution 100 um. The LIBS maps of rare-earth elements in B.oleracea plant grown with 50 ug/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated exposures showed the root as the main storage, while the transfer via stem into leaves was minimal. On the contrary, the LIBS maps of plants exposed to the 500 ug/mL nanoparticle-treated and ion-treated uncover slightly different trends, nanoparticles as well as ions were transferred through the stem into leaves. However, the main storage organ was a root as well.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2021, vol. 214, issue 1, p. 1-9.
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