Extracellular Vesicles and Hydrogels: An Innovative Approach to Tissue Regeneration

Extracellular vesicles have emerged as promising tools in regenerative medicine due to their inherent ability to facilitate intercellular communication and modulate cellular functions. These nanosized vesicles transport bioactive molecules, such as proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, which can affect the behavior of recipient cells and promote tissue regeneration. However, the therapeutic application of these vesicles is frequently constrained by their rapid clearance from the body and inability to maintain a sustained presence at the injury site. In order to overcome these obstacles, hydrogels have been used as extracellular vesicle delivery vehicles, providing a localized and controlled release system that improves their therapeutic efficacy. This Review will examine the role of extracellular vesicle-loaded hydrogels in tissue regeneration, discussing potential applications, current challenges, and future directions. We will investigate the origins, composition, and characterization techniques of extracellular vesicles, focusing on recent advances in exosome profiling and the role of machine learning in this field. In addition, we will investigate the properties of hydrogels that make them ideal extracellular vesicle carriers. Recent studies utilizing this combination for tissue regeneration will be highlighted, providing a comprehensive overview of the current research landscape and potential future directions.
ACS OMEGA. 2024, vol. 9, issue 6, p. 6184-6218.
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