EÚ-odbor fluidního inženýrství Viktora Kaplana


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 30
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    Hydrodynamic cavitation-enhanced activation of sodium percarbonate for estrogen removal
    (IWA Publishing, 2023-12-01) Odehnalová, Klára; Přibilová, Petra; Maršálková, Eliška; Zezulka, Štěpán; Pochylý, František; Rudolf, Pavel; Maršálek, Blahoslav
    The present paper investigated the potential of hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) as an effective tool for activating sodium percarbonate (SPC). The method's efficiency was demonstrated by effectively removing estrogens, which are pollutants that have adverse impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The effects of the SPC concentration, temperature of solution, and cavitation time were evaluated. After SPC/HC treatment, the removal of estrogens was monitored by LC-MS/MS. Already after 4 s of treatment and 24 h of reaction time, more than 97% of estrogens (initial concentration of 300 ng/L) were removed. The effect of post-treatment time is not considered in several papers, even though it seems to be crucial and is discussed here. The results were supported by the values of degradation rate constants, which fit the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. We also verified that HC alone was not effective for estrogen removal under the selected conditions. The sustainability of the SPC/HC system was evaluated based on electric energy per order calculation. The combination of SPC and HC is a promising approach for rapidly degrading micropollutants such as estrogenic compounds without the need for additional technological steps, such as pH or temperature adjustment.
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    Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser
    (EDP Sciences, 2016-03-28) Moravec, Prokop; Hliník, Juraj; Rudolf, Pavel
    Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.
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    Methods of Experimental Investigation of Cavitation in a Convergent - Divergent Nozzle of Rectangular Cross Section
    (De Gruyter Open, 2016-08-01) Jablonská, Jana; Kozubková, Milada; Himr, Daniel; Weisz, Michal
    Cavitation is a phenomenon with both positive and negative effects and with dynamic manifestations in hydraulic, food, chemical and other machinery. This article deals with the detection and dynamic behavior of cavitation clouds in water flows through a rectangular cross-section convergent-divergent nozzle. Cavitation was measured by methods applicable in engineering practice. Pressure, flow rate, noise, vibration, and amount of air dissolved in the liquid were measured and cavitation region was recorded with a high-speed camera. Evaluation of acquired images in connection with measured pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations was performed with the use of the FFT method. In certain cases, dimensionless parameters were used to generalize the measurements. The results will be used to specify multiphase mathematical cavitation model parameters.
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    Design of hydraulic recuperation unit
    (EDP Sciences, 2015-11-17) Jandourek, Pavel; Habán, Vladimír; Hudec, Martin; Dobšáková, Lenka; Štefan, David
    Article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.
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    An Investigation of Viscous Torque Loss in Ball Bearing Operating in Various Liquids
    (MDPI, 2021-05-08) Dobrovolný, Martin; Habán, Vladimír; Tancjurová, Jana; Zbavitel, Jan
    The limited functionality of seals that are used in hydraulic machines to prevent the liquid from leaking into the bearings may result in decrease in machine efficiency and reliability and may cause an accident of the whole hydraulic machine. However, not every damage of seals must result in a shutdown of the whole machine. In case of partially or fully flooded bearings, the machine can temporarily operate with significantly increased input power and with lower efficiency. Such a limited operation of the machine shortens its lifetime and is accompanied by the presence of torque loss on the shaft. The measurement of torque loss can be helpful during the design process of new machines as well as for an analysis of hydraulic losses and efficiency of prototypes. Moreover, the real-time measurement of torque loss can be used for remote online monitoring of hydraulic machines. The aim of this paper is to present primarily an experimental investigation of the viscous torque loss for ball bearings submerged into liquid. The CFD simulation is also included to distribute the total torque loss between the hub and the bearing. The main goal is to modify the drag coefficient, respectively the friction loss coefficient in SKF's and Palgrem's empirical model. The new coefficients may provide a prediction of torque loss in the fully flooded bearings which is not possible with existing models. The torque loss characteristics are determined for specific ball bearings too. In contradiction to partially flooded bearing situation, it is obvious from a experiment, that some coefficients in Palgrem's model and SKF model are dependent on revolutions when bearings are fully flooded. The experimental investigation of viscous torque loss are carried out for various types of ball bearings, all fully submerged into two various liquids, i.e., oil and water.