Ústav vodního hospodářství obcí


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Now showing 1 - 5 of 35
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    Ecotoxicity of Wastewater in the Czech Republic
    (MDPI, 2023-12-08) Bogáňová, Ida Antonie; Hluštík, Petr
    The presented article deals with monitoring the ecotoxicity/toxicity of wastewater flowing into selected wastewater treatment plants in the Czech Republic. The sewage treatment plant was in a state of disrepair and was unable to treat the incoming sewage. In this critical period, the parameters – BOD5, CHSKCr, NL, N-NH4, N-inorg, N-total, P-total, RAS and pH were monitored at the inflow to the WWTP. BOD5, CHSKCr, NL, N-NH4, N-NO3, N-NO2, N-inorg, N-total, P-total and RAS were also monitored at the effluent from the wastewater treatment plant. Ecotoxicity (fish, barnacles, algae) and toxicity (Vibrio fischeri) were monitored at the inflow and outflow. The article considers the effects of wastewater ecotoxicity on individual wastewater treatment processes.
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    The use of biochar made from biomass and biosolids as a substrate for green infrastructure: A review
    (Elsevier, 2023-02-01) Novotný, Michal; Marković, Mihajlo; Raček, Jakub; Šipka, Milan; Chorazy, Tomáš; Tošić, Ivana; Hlavínek, Petr
    This paper reviews and summarizes various feedstocks for biochar production, pyrolysis technology and conditions, and physicochemical properties of selected types of biochar. Since biochar has a positive influence on plant growth, fertilizer efficiency, and rainwater capture, showing its use as a stable organic component of the substrate is the main objective of this research paper. Conclusion of the review considers the usage of biochar as a substrate for green infrastructure in pursuance of its characteristics, limiting pollutants concentration, potential benefits and risks for the environment, water sources and occurring climate change. The review is based on the analysis of selected papers on existing research and case studies related to the use of biochar and the evaluation of the impact of biochar on the characteristics of growing medium.
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    Preliminary assessment of the technical condition of water supply infrastructures
    (Elsevier, 2016-06-01) Tuhovčák, Ladislav; Kučera, Tomáš; Sucháček, Tomáš
    To ensure sustainability and reliability of water supply infrastructure, we must apply a basic pre-condition, which is, its continual renewal. For renewal planning, there are many methods, techniques and software tools for decision support, but most of them, in many cases, focus only on water mains. Water supply systems, however, consist of different parts and structures than just water pipes. It is therefore not appropriate to invest in the renewal planning only in relation to one part of the water supply infrastructure. The knowledge of the current technical condition of the water supply infrastructure is crucial to maintain its planned performance and optimise its maintenance and renewal. Effective detailed evaluation of the technical condition requires deployment of specialists, reliable database, considerable amount of time and instrumentation and software. Therefore, it is preferable to perform the first rapid and efficient preliminary identification of problematic areas and elements of water supply systems. This paper presents the methodology and the Technical Energy Audit (TEA Water), the effective preliminary assessment of the technical state of water supply systems (WSS). The paper presents the structure of the proposed technical indicators, the method of their determination and evaluation, including the presentation of case studies of implementing the methodology and software tool in the Czech Republic.
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    Methodology for the estimation of the technical condition in the case of water treatment plants
    (Elsevier, 2016-06-01) Kučera, Tomáš; Tuhovčák, Ladislav; Biela, Renata
    The paper presents the methodology for determining the operating and technical indicators for a preliminary assessment of the elements of water supply system (WSS) such as water treatment plants. The necessary data and system of technical indicators (TI) evaluation using the multi-objective optimization and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) are defined. The proposed methodology allows for the selection and ranking of WSS critical elements for more detailed analyses and suggestions of the type of renewal, including the estimated financial costs. Water treatment plants can be assessed by means of the specific part of the methodology. With respect to the water treatment plants the authors of the methodology realize that it is hard to generalize the entire audit since there are many types of water treatment plants as well as technological elements used. The proposed set of assessment indicators is based on the function of the water treatment plant, i.e. production of drinking water in the required quantity and quality. When assessing the technical condition of the water treatment plant this facility may not be viewed simply in structural and technical terms but it is absolutely necessary and much more important to assess it in technological terms.
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    Efficacy of sorption materials for nickel, iron and manganese removal from water
    (Elsevier, 2016-06-01) Biela, Renata; Kučera, Tomáš
    Some uncommon elements can sometimes be present in groundwater and surface water. Metals belong to such elements. Increased concentrations of iron and manganese can be expected in groundwater but higher concentrations of metals such as nickel or arsenic are not typical of such water. Nevertheless, water sources exceeding prescribed limits for drinking water in arsenic and nickel concentrations can also be found. Because of the toxicity of these metals, we started to make a research into the possibilities of removing these elements from water. Our research is funded by a grant from the Brno University of Technology. There is a number of ways to remove heavy metals from water. Sorption on granular media based on iron oxides and hydroxides is currently the most used option. Our experiment was carried out using sorption materials GEH, CFH 0818, CFH 12 and Bayoxide, which are primarily designed to remove arsenic from water. We prepared four columns of an inner diameter of 4.4 cm for the purpose of the experiment. The thickness of the filtration media was 0.62 cm on average. Nickel, iron and manganese pollution was simulated in a laboratory. The efficacy of metals removal by four selected sorption materials was compared. During the experiment, the flow rate was set to reach the required retention time of 2.5, 7 and 15 minutes. We have found out that the nickel concentration was reduced according to Regulation No. 252/2004 setting the limit value even after the shortest retention time (2.5 mins). Longer retention time had no significant effect on nickel removal. Our measurements also proved that all sorption materials have the ability to remove iron and manganese from water. Bayoxide sorption material achieved the best results in nickel, iron and manganese removal from water.