ÚST-odbor technologie obrábění


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    Effect of high-speed steel screw drill geometry on cutting performance when machining austenitic stainless steel
    (Springer Nature, 2023-06-07) Sedlák, Josef; Zouhar, Jan; Kolomý, Štěpán; Slaný, Martin; Nečesánek, Emil
    Drilling into the solid material is one of the basic technological operations, which creates a cylindrical hole in an appropriate time with required quality. Drilling operation demands a favourable removal of chips from the cutting area because a creation of an undesirable shape of chips can impart a lower quality of the drilled hole corresponding with the generation of excess heat due to the intense contact of the chip with drill. The solution for a proper machining is a suitable modification of the drill geometry i.e., point and clearance angles as presented in current study. The tested drills are made of M35 high-speed steel characterized by a very thin core at the point of the drill. An interesting feature of the drills is the use of cutting speed higher than 30 m min(-1), with the feed of 0.2 mm per revolution. The surface roughness (Ra and Rz lower than 1 mu m and 6 mu m respectively), cylindricity (0.045 mm), roundness (0.025 mm), perpendicularity of the hole axis (0.025 mm), diameters and position of the individual holes were achieved for a drill with point angle 138.32 degrees and clearance angle 6.92 respectively. The increase of the drill point angle by 6 degrees resulted in the decrease in the feed force of more than 150 N. In addition, an increase of the clearance angle by 1 degrees resulted with a decrease in the feed force of 70 N. The results of the experiment showed that with the correct geometry of the tool the effective machining without using internal cooling can be realised.
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    High Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of 316L Stainless Steel Produced via Selective Laser Melting Method and Post Processed by Hot Rotary Swaging
    (MDPI, 2023-04-26) Opěla, Petr; Benč, Marek; Kolomý, Štěpán; Jakůbek, Zdeněk; Beranová, Denisa
    This paper deals with a study of additively manufactured (by the Selective Laser Melting, SLM, method) and conventionally produced AISI 316L stainless steel and their comparison. With the intention to enhance the performance of the workpieces, each material was post-processed via hot rotary swaging under a temperature of 900 °C. The samples of each particular material were analysed regarding porosity, microhardness, high cycle fatigue, and microstructure. The obtained data has shown a significant reduction in the residual porosity and the microhardness increase to 310 HV in the sample after the hot rotary swaging. Based on the acquired data, the sample produced via SLM and post-processed by hot rotary swaging featured higher fatigue resistance compared to conventionally produced samples where the stress was set to 540 MPa. The structure of the printed samples changed from the characteristic melting pools to a structure with a lower average grain size accompanied by a decrease of a high fraction of high-angle grain boundaries and higher geometrically necessary dislocation density. Specifically, the grain size decreased from the average diameters of more than 20 µm to 3.9 µm and 4.1 µm for the SLM and conventionally prepared samples, respectively. In addition, the presented research has brought in the material constants of the Hensel-Spittel formula adapted to predict the hot flow stress evolution of the studied steel with respect to its 3D printed state.
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    Analysis of the Mechanical Properties of 3D-Printed Plastic Samples Subjected to Selected Degradation Effects
    (MDPI, 2023-04-21) Sedlák, Josef; Joska, Zdeněk; Jánský, Jiří; Zouhar, Jan; Kolomý, Štěpán; Slaný, Martin; Švásta, Adam; Jiroušek, Jan
    The Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) method is an additive technology that is used for the creation of prototypes within Rapid Prototyping (RP) as well as for the creation of final components in piece or small-series production. The possibility of using FFF technology in the creation of final products requires knowledge of the properties of the material and, at the same time, how these properties change due to degradation effects. In this study, the mechanical properties of the selected materials (PLA, PETG, ABS, and ASA) were tested in their non-degenerate state and after exposure of the samples to the selected degradation factors. For the analysis, which was carried out by the tensile test and the Shore D hardness test, samples of normalized shape were prepared. The effects of UV radiation, high temperature environments, high humidity environments, temperature cycles, and exposure to weather conditions were monitored. The parameters obtained from the tests (tensile strength and Shore D hardness) were statistically evaluated, and the influence of degradation factors on the properties of individual materials was assessed. The results showed that even between individual manufacturers of the same filament there are differences, both in the mechanical properties and in the behavior of the material after exposure to degradation effects.
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    Influence of Aging Temperature on Mechanical Properties and Structure of M300 Maraging Steel Produced by Selective Laser Melting
    (MDPI, 2023-01-20) Kolomý, Štěpán; Sedlák, Josef; Zouhar, Jan; Slaný, Martin; Benč, Marek; Dobrocký, David; Barényi, Igor; Majerík, Jozef
    This paper deals with the study of high-strength M300 maraging steel produced using the selective laser melting method. Heat treatment consists of solution annealing and subsequent aging; the influence of the selected aging temperatures on the final mechanical properties-microhardness and compressive yield strength-and the structure of the maraging steel are described in detail. The microstructure of the samples is examined using optical and electron microscopy. The compressive test results show that the compressive yield strength increased after heat treatment up to a treatment temperature of 480 degrees C and then gradually decreased. The sample aged at 480 degrees C also exhibited the highest observed microhardness of 562 HV. The structure of this sample changed from the original melt pools to a relatively fine-grained structure with a high fraction of high-angle grain boundaries (72%).
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    Advanced Machining of Joint Implant UHMWPE Inserts
    (MDPI, 2022-01-01) Píška, Miroslav; Urbancová, Kateřina
    The modern orthopaedic implants for applications in hips, knees, shoulders, and spines are composed of hard metal alloys or ceramics and a tribological sub-component that is made of soft materials, with good frictional properties—e.g., UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecule Weight Polyethylene). The UHMWPE implants need to be machined into their final shape after the polymerization and consolidation into a blank profile or near net shaped implant. Thus, machining is a crucial technology that can generate an accurate and precise shape of the implant that should comply with the joints’ function. However, the machining technology can affect the topography and integrity of the surface, transmitted stresses, and resistance to wear. Technology, cutting tools, and cutting conditions can have an impact on the physical and mechanical properties of the entire implant and its longevity. This paper shows an effective and competitive technology for acquiring high-quality insert shape, dimensions, and surface, needed especially for customized implants.