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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
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    The use of biochar made from biomass and biosolids as a substrate for green infrastructure: A review
    (Elsevier, 2023-02-01) Novotný, Michal; Marković, Mihajlo; Raček, Jakub; Šipka, Milan; Chorazy, Tomáš; Tošić, Ivana; Hlavínek, Petr
    This paper reviews and summarizes various feedstocks for biochar production, pyrolysis technology and conditions, and physicochemical properties of selected types of biochar. Since biochar has a positive influence on plant growth, fertilizer efficiency, and rainwater capture, showing its use as a stable organic component of the substrate is the main objective of this research paper. Conclusion of the review considers the usage of biochar as a substrate for green infrastructure in pursuance of its characteristics, limiting pollutants concentration, potential benefits and risks for the environment, water sources and occurring climate change. The review is based on the analysis of selected papers on existing research and case studies related to the use of biochar and the evaluation of the impact of biochar on the characteristics of growing medium.
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    Microwave pyrolyzed sewage sludge: influence on soil microbiology, nutrient status, and plant biomass
    (Springer Nature, 2022-11-28) Lónová, Kamila; Holátko, Jiří; Hammerschmiedt, Tereza; Mravcová, Ludmila; Kučerík, Jiří; Mustafa, Adnan; Kintl, Antonín; Naveed, Muhammad; Raček, Jakub; Grulichová, Marie; Miklasová, Marta; Brtnický, Martin
    Background: Sewage sludge (SS) has been considered a potent source of soil nutrients. However, its direct application to agricultural soils have been discouraged owing to its toxic nature. Therefore, conversion and modification of SS to decrease its toxicity has resulted in advanced methods. Co-pyrolysis of SS with other amendments is an ideal treatment resulting in an environmentally safe and nutrient rich final products with additional properties to sequester carbon. In the present study, a novel biochar was produced through the microwave pyrolysis of SS mixed with zeolite and sawdust. The pyrolysis product was thus characterized for elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and for its effects on soil microbial characteristics, soil health and plant biomass after soil application. Results: Results revealed that, the SS modification resulted in stable product with higher nutrients which further depend on the type and ratio of feedstock used. Its application to soil significantly improved soil chemical and microbiological properties and altered lettuce biomass. Conclusions: We concluded that sawdust feedstock promoted nutrient availability in the resulting biochar and induced higher activity of nutrient mineralizing enzymes, whereas zeolite slowed down the release of nutrients from soil and putatively immobilized enzymes. This joint effect of sewage sludge biochar, sawdust and zeolite benefited the plant acquisition of nutrients in comparison with the microbial nutrient uptake. We thus conclude that microwave pyrolyzed SS could be used as a soil enhancer.
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    Food and agricultural wastesderived biochars in combination with mineral fertilizer as sustainable soil amendments to enhance soil microbiological activity, nutrient cycling and crop production
    (Frontiers, 2022-10-06) Mustafa, Adnan; Brtnický, Martin; Hammerschmiedt, Tereza; Kučerík, Jiří; Kintl, Antonín; Chorazy, Tomáš; Naveed, Muhammad; Skarpa, Petr; Baltazár, Tivadar; Malíček, Ondřej; Holátko, Jiří
    The ever-increasing human population associated with high rate of waste generation may pose serious threats to soil ecosystem. Nevertheless, conversion of agricultural and food wastes to biochar has been shown as a beneficial approach in sustainable soil management. However, our understanding on how integration of biochar obtained from different wastes and mineral fertilizers impact soil microbiological indicators is limited. Therefore, in the present study the effects of agricultural (AB) and food waste derived (FWB) biochars with and without mineral fertilizer (MF) on crop growth and soil health indicators were compared in a pot experiment. In particular, the impacts of applied amendments on soil microbiological health indicators those related to microbial extracellular (C, N and P acquiring) enzymes, soil basal as well as different substrate induced respirations along with crop’s agronomic performance were explored. The results showed that compared to the control, the amendment with AB combined with MF enhanced the crop growth as revealed by higher above and below ground biomass accumulation. Moreover, both the biochars (FWB and AB) modified soil chemical properties (pH and electric conductivity) in the presence or absence of MF as compared to control. However, with the sole application of MF was most influential strategy to improve soil basal and arginin-induced respiration as well as most of the soil extracellular enzymes, those related to C, N and P cycling. Use of FWB resulted in enhanced urease activity. This suggested the role of MF and FWB in nutrient cycling and plant nutrition. Thus, integration of biochar and mineral fertilizers is recommended as an efficient and climate smart package for sustainable soil management and crop production.