EÚ-odbor energetického inženýrství


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 5 of 24
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    The Bulk Density and Cohesion of Submicron Particles Emitted by a Residential Boiler When Burning Solid Fuels
    (MDPI, 2023-11-19) Gregorovičová, Eva; Pospíšil, Jiří; Sitek, Tomáš
    Particles emitted from combustion sources have a negative impact on human health and the environment. The solid fuel boilers that are used in households are a significant source of air pollution. The present study analyzes particulate matter (PM) produced during the combustion of wood pellets, wood logs, and coke in a residential boiler. The captured particles’ particle size distribution, bulk density, and cohesion are identified. A cascade impactor was used to capture the particles, and an optical digital microscope was used to determine the bulk density and cohesion (angle of repose) of the particles. The results show that the highest particle mass concentration emitted by the boiler falls within the interval of 89–146 nm, with the combustion of wood logs producing the most particles and coke combustion producing the least. The bulk density of particles of 51–595 nm (impactor stages 4–8) ranges from 320 to 785 kg/m3 for wood logs, 372–1108 kg/m3 for wood pellets, and 435–1330 kg/m3 for coke. The PM1 particles (impactor stage 4) have the highest bulk density. In the particle size range studied, the bulk density of particles decreases significantly with increasing particle size.
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    Identification of Wind-Induced Particle Resuspension in Urban Environment Using CFD Modelling
    (MDPI, 2023-01-01) Linda, Jakub; Pospíšil, Jiří; Köbölová, Klaudia
    Air pollution caused by particulate matter (PM) is a current problem in many cities. With the introduction of strict emission limits and electric cars, lower particle production is expected in the future. However, there are sources of particles that cannot be easily influenced. These include resuspension, where particles deposited on surfaces re-enter the air, causing pollution multiple times. Resuspension can account for up to 18% of the total emissions in some cases. The present paper focuses on the use of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools to describe the flow in a street canyon where resuspension by wind occurs. Based on the calculated flow, a resuspension model is applied to see where resuspension occurs and how far the particles can travel. The shear stresses on the surfaces and the character of the flow field in the boundary layer are evaluated. Different building configurations and flow parameters are tested using a simple 2D model. The model makes it possible to see in which parts of the street canyon resuspension can occur. It shows that the particles leave the street canyon only from the surfaces where the conditions are suitable for resuspension. These particles then enter the mainstream. However, most of the particles stay in the canyon, which can cause resuspension to pollute the air repeatedly. This effect can have a severe impact on human health. The total dispersion of particles in the urban environment is evaluated. The results may be useful for cities that clean the streets, as it is clear which areas will benefit most from the cleaning.
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    Seasonal Variability of Resuspension
    (EDP Sciences, 2022-11-04) Linda, Jakub; Köbölová, Klaudia; Uhlík, Ondřej; Pospíšil, Jiří; Apeltauer, Tomáš
    Particulate air pollution in cities is caused by a variety of sources. One of the less-studied contributors is wind-induced particle resuspension. As the wind speed increases, particles are removed from surfaces. These particles cause an increase in the total concentration in the air. It is known that particles of 10-2.5 m in size can be resuspended (PM10-2,5). Modern emission monitoring in cities also allows the monitoring of fine particles of 10, 2.5 and 1 m in size. The size fractions can then be sorted into PM10-2,5, PM2,5-1 and PM1. When breathed in, particles of different sizes cause various serious health risks. This paper focuses on the identification of the resuspension process of different particle size fractions by a data processing method. Data measured by automatic emission monitoring are used. It is confirmed that the concentration increase can be dominated by the fraction PM10-2,5. However, a concentration increase of fractions PM2,5-1 and PM1 is also evident with increasing wind speed. Although the increase in the PM1 fraction is smaller than PM10-2,5, it is more severe due to the respiratory deposition dose. The resuspension of particles of different fractions has different behaviours during the year. PM10-2,5 particles are dominantly resuspended in the summer months. In winter, on the other hand, the proportion of PM2.5-1 and PM1 particles increases, which may be related to the heating season
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    Heat transfer during condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical tube of small diameter
    (Elsevier, 2022-12-01) Toman, Filip; Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří
    The paper deals with a detailed analysis of published analytical relations for heat transfer during steam condensation in a vertical tube. The historical development of the approaches and the chronological development of the used analytical relations are presented. Attention is focused on the description of the processes at the gas phase-condensate film interface as well as on the inclusion of the influence of the presence of non-condensable gases. The analytical relations in 12 modifications are compared with each other for the same geometrical configuration of the vertical tube and identical boundary conditions. The authors performed comparative experimental measurements of the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of the vapour-gas mixture in vertical tubes of three diameters, namely 16, 20 and 26mm. Based on a comparison of the experimental results and analytical relations, recommendations are made on the validity interval of the tested relations.
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    Controlled nanoparticle growth by vapour condensation
    (Tanger, 2022-02-25) Sitek, Tomáš; Köbölová, Klaudia; Poláčik, Ján; Valovič, Stela
    Domestic boilers are generally characterized by higher emissions of airborne dust. A commonly used secondary method of reducing emissions in the energy sector is a cyclone. However, its wider expansion in households is limited by, among other things, the low efficiency of particle capture below 1 micrometre in diameter, and it is these sizes that dominate in the flue gas of domestic heating devices. By sharply lowering the temperature of the flue gas below the dew point of the vapour, it condenses on all available surfaces. This effect could increase the diameter of the particles, which could be separated with higher efficiency. A change in the numerical distribution of the fine particles with a temperature and thus the supersaturation of the flue gas was sought. The flue gas passed through an impinger filled with water and isopropyl alcohol at three different temperature regimes. The impinger also served to capture the condensate, which was then subjected to morphology analysis using an electron microscope and determination of particle distribution in the condensate.